Consumers require high-quality beers with specific enhanced flavor profiles and non-conventional yeasts could represent a large source of bioflavoring diversity to obtain new beer styles. In this work, we investigated the use of three different non-conventional yeasts belonging to Lachancea thermotolerans, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Zygotorulaspora florentina species in pure and mixed fermentation with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial starter US-05. All three non-conventional yeasts were competitive in co-cultures with the S. cerevisiae, and they dominated fermentations with 1:20 ratio (S. cerevisiae/non-conventional yeasts ratios). Pure non-conventional yeasts and co-cultures affected significantly the beer aroma. A general reduction in acetaldehyde content in all mixed fermentations was found. L. thermotolerans and Z. florentina in mixed and W. anomalus in pure cultures increased higher alcohols. L. thermotolerans led to a large reduction in pH value, producing, in pure culture, a large amount of lactic acid (1.83 g/L) while showing an enhancement of ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate in all pure and mixed fermentations. W. anomalus decreased the main aroma compounds in comparison with the S. cerevisiae but showed a significant increase in ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate. Beers produced with Z. florentina were characterized by an increase in the isoamyl acetate and α-terpineol content.
Exploitation of Three Non-Conventional Yeast Species in the Brewing Process / Canonico, Laura; Galli, Edoardo; Ciani, Enrico; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - ELETTRONICO. - 7:1(2019), pp. 1-14. [10.3390/microorganisms7010011]