Several studies have demonstrated that stigmas of Crocus sativus contain several bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. However, during the processing of stigmas, large amounts of floral bio-residues are normally discarded as by-products. In this study, using untargeted metabolomics, the comprehensive phytochemical composition of C. sativus stigma and tepals was investigated. Moreover, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of the extracts of C. sativus stigmas and tepals were compared. The study was carried out using two methicillin-resistant staphylococcal reference strains (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984), representing important Gram-positive biofilm-forming human pathogens. The antibacterial properties were correlated with total polyphenol content, total terpenoid content, and in vitro antioxidant properties of tepals and stigmas. The results demonstrated that stigma and tepal extracts, at the sub-toxic concentrations, were able to interfere with biofilm formation by ATCC 43300 and ATCC 35984. Besides, the higher antibacterial activity of tepals than stigmas was associated with higher levels of phycompounds. Therefore, our results demonstrated that C. sativus stigmas and bio-residues, such as tepals, are potential antioxidant sources and good candidates as antibacterial agents to prevent biofilm formation. Taken together, these findings showed that C. sativus could be used as functional ingredient by the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Bellachioma L.;Marini E.;Magi G.;Pugnaloni A.;Facinelli B.;Martinelli E.;Morresi C.;Bacchetti T.
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