Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the leading causes of death in the world and for this reason it has attracted the attention of numerous researchers in the field of legal medicine. It is not easy to determine the cause in a SCD case and the available methods used for diagnosis cannot always give an exhaustive answer. In addition, the molecular analysis of genes does not lead to a clear conclusion, but it could be interesting to focus attention on the expression level of miRNAs, a class of non-coding RNA of about 22 nucleotides. The role of miRNAs is to regulate the gene expression through complementary binding to 3 '-untraslated regions of miRNAs, leading to the inhibition of translation or to mRNA degradation. In recent years, several studies were performed with the aim of exploring the use of these molecules as biomarkers for SCD cases, and to also distinguish the causes that lead to cardiac death. In this review, we summarize experiments, evidence, and results of different studies on the implication of miRNAs in SCD cases. We discuss the different biological starting materials with their respective advantages and disadvantages, studying miRNA expression on tissue (fresh-frozen tissue and FFPE tissue), circulating cell-free miRNAs in blood of patients affected by cardiac disease at high risk of SCD, and exosomal miRNAs analyzed from serum of people who died from SCD.
The Role of miRNA Expression Profile in Sudden Cardiac Death Cases / Bernini Di Michele, Alessia; Onofri, Valerio; Pesaresi, Mauro; Turchi, Chiara. - In: GENES. - ISSN 2073-4425. - 14:10(2023). [10.3390/genes14101954]