Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, represent the unique target of a group of progressive diseases known as cholangiopathies whose pathogenesis remain largely unknown. In normal conditions, cholangiocytes are quiescent and participate to the final bile volume and composition. Following exogenous or endogenous stimuli, cholangiocytes undergo extensive modifications of their phenotype. Reactive cholangiocytes actively proliferate and release a set of proinflammatory molecules, which act in autocrine/paracrine manner mediating the cross-talk with other liver cell types and innate and adaptive immune cells. Cholangiocytes themselves activate innate immune responses against gut-derived microorganisms or bacterial products that reach the liver via enterohepatic circulation. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the development and progression of the two most common cholangiopathies, i.e., primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), which have distinctive microbiota composition compared to healthy individuals. The impairment of intestinal barrier functions or gut dysbiosis expose cholangiocytes to an increasing amount of microorganisms and may exacerbate inflammatory responses thus leading to fibrotic remodeling of the organ. The present review focuses on the complex interactions between the activation of innate immune responses in reactive cholangiocytes, dysbiosis, and gut permeability to bacterial products in the pathogenesis of PSC and PBC.

Inflammation and the Gut-Liver Axis in the Pathophysiology of Cholangiopathies

Giordano, Debora Maria;Pinto, Claudio;Maroni, Luca;Benedetti, Antonio;Marzioni, Marco
2018

Abstract

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, represent the unique target of a group of progressive diseases known as cholangiopathies whose pathogenesis remain largely unknown. In normal conditions, cholangiocytes are quiescent and participate to the final bile volume and composition. Following exogenous or endogenous stimuli, cholangiocytes undergo extensive modifications of their phenotype. Reactive cholangiocytes actively proliferate and release a set of proinflammatory molecules, which act in autocrine/paracrine manner mediating the cross-talk with other liver cell types and innate and adaptive immune cells. Cholangiocytes themselves activate innate immune responses against gut-derived microorganisms or bacterial products that reach the liver via enterohepatic circulation. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the development and progression of the two most common cholangiopathies, i.e., primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), which have distinctive microbiota composition compared to healthy individuals. The impairment of intestinal barrier functions or gut dysbiosis expose cholangiocytes to an increasing amount of microorganisms and may exacerbate inflammatory responses thus leading to fibrotic remodeling of the organ. The present review focuses on the complex interactions between the activation of innate immune responses in reactive cholangiocytes, dysbiosis, and gut permeability to bacterial products in the pathogenesis of PSC and PBC.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11566/262691
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