In children with congenital heart disease (CHD), pulmonary blood flow (Qp) contributes to alterations of pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange, while cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces lung edema. We aimed to determine the effect of hemodynamics on lung function and lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) biomarkers in biventricular CHD children undergoing CPB. CHD children were classified as high Qp (n = 43) and low Qp (n = 17), according to preoperative cardiac morphology and arterial oxygen saturation. We measured ELF surfactant protein B (SP-B) and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) as indexes of lung inflammation and ELF albumin as index of alveolar capillary leak in tracheal aspirate (TA) samples collected before surgery and in 6 hourly intervals within 24 h after surgery. At the same time points, we recorded dynamic compliance and oxygenation index (OI). The same biomarkers were measured in TA samples collected from 16 infants with no cardiorespiratory diseases at the time of endotracheal intubation for elective surgery. Preoperative ELF biomarkers in CHD children were significantly increased than those found in controls. In the high Qp, ELF MPO and SP-B peaked 6 h after surgery and tended to decrease afterward, while they tended to increase within the first 24 h in the low Qp. ELF albumin peaked 6 h after surgery and decreased afterwards in both CHD groups. Dynamic compliance/kg and OI significantly improved after surgery only in the High Qp.Conclusion: In CHD children, lung mechanics, OI, and ELF biomarkers were significantly affected by CPB, according to the preoperative pulmonary hemodynamics.
Effect of preoperative pulmonary hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary bypass on lung function in children with congenital heart disease / Simonato, Manuela; Padalino, Massimo; Vedovelli, Luca; Carollo, Cristiana; Sartori, Anna; Vida, Vladimiro; Gregori, Dario; Carnielli, Virgilio; Cogo, Paola. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. - ISSN 0340-6199. - STAMPA. - 182:6(2023), pp. 2549-2557. [10.1007/s00431-023-04926-0]