Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an itchy dermatitis with multifactorial aetiology, chronic-recurrent course, and typical distribution of lesions according to the age, affecting the 10-20% of pediatric population. Patients with AD, including children, suffer from many metabolic comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome, being overweight, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and arterial hypertension, all of which had a prevalence that was demonstrated to be higher than in healthy patients. The association between AD and metabolic comorbidities is multifactorial and involves the deregulation of immune system. In fact, hypertrophic adipose tissue produces soluble adipokines involved in inflammation and immunity, which stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, responsible for a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and a higher predisposition to hypersensitivity reactions. Especially in pediatric population with AD, these metabolic disorders are usually underestimated and are associated with long term sequelae and an increased risk of a cardiovascular event, which may also occur later in adult age. Therefore, metabolic comorbidities should be carefully evaluated and early treated in children with AD, to minimize the long-term risk of cardiovascular events.
Metabolic Comorbidities in Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis: A Narrative Review / De Simoni, Edoardo; Rizzetto, Giulio; Molinelli, Elisa; Lucarini, Guendalina; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Capodaglio, Irene; Ferretti, Gianna; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Offidani, Annamaria; Simonetti, Oriana. - In: LIFE. - ISSN 2075-1729. - ELETTRONICO. - 13:1(2022), pp. 2-11. [10.3390/life13010002]