Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease that typically begins in childhood and may persist into adulthood, becoming a lifelong condition. The major inflammatory mediators of AD are known to be interleukin IL4 and IL13, so Dupilumab, which is able to inhibit both interleukins by blocking the shared IL4R alpha subunit, has become an attractive option for treating AD. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in the onset and development of AD by secreting specific interleukins. The aim of this study was to isolate MSCs from healthy controls (C-MSCs) and patients with AD before (AD-MSCs T0) and after 16 weeks of treatment with Dupilumab (AD-MSCs T16); to evaluate the expression mainly of IL4 and IL13 and of other inflammatory cytokines in C-MSCs, AD-MSCs at T0 and at T16; and to evaluate the efficacy of Dupilumab on MSCs immunobiology. C- and AD-MSCs (T0, T16) were isolated from skin specimens and characterized; the expression/secretion of IL4 and IL13 was evaluated using immuno-cytochemistry (ICC), indirect immune-fluorescence (IIF) and an ELISA test; secretion of IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL17A, Interferon gamma (IFN gamma), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), and Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF beta 1) were measured with ELISA. IL13 and IL6 were over-expressed, while IL4 was down-regulated in AD-MSCs at T0 compared to C-MSCs. IL6 and IL13 expression was restored after 16 weeks of Dupilumab treatment, while no significant effects on IL4 expression were noted. Finally, IL2, IL5, IL10, IL12, IL17A, INF gamma, TNF alpha, G-CSF, and TGF beta 1 were similarly secreted by C- and AD-MSCs. Although Dupilumab blocks the IL4R alpha subunit shared by IL4 and IL13, it is evident that its real target is IL13, and its ability to target IL13 in MSCs reinforces the evidence, already known in differentiated cells, of the central role IL13 rather than IL4 in the development of AD. The inflammatory cascade in AD begins at the mesenchymal level, so an upstream therapeutic intervention, able to modify the immunobiology of atopic MSCs, could potentially change the natural history of the disease.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Profile in Adult Atopic Dermatitis and Effect of IL4-IL13 Inflammatory Pathway Inhibition In Vivo: Prospective Case-Control Study / Campanati, Anna; Orciani, Monia; Marani, Andrea; Di Vincenzo, Mariangela; Magi, Simona; Gregoriou, Stamatios; Diotallevi, Federico; Martina, Emanuela; Radi, Giulia; Offidani, Annamaria. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 11:16(2022), p. 4759. [10.3390/jcm11164759]