Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid, noteworthy for its involvement both in the modulation of various biological processes and in the development of many diseases. S1P signaling can be either pro or anti-inflammatory, and the sphingosine kinase (SphK)-S1P-S1P receptor (S1PR) axis is a factor in accelerating the growth of several cells, including endometriotic cells and fibrosis. Gynecologic disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids are characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. S1P signaling and metabolism have been shown to be dysregulated in those disorders and they are likely implicated in their pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Enzymes responsible for inactivating S1P are the most affected by the dysregulation of S1P balanced levels, thus causing accumulation of sphingolipids within these cells and tissues. The present review highlights the past and latest evidence on the role played by the S1P pathways in common gynecologic disorders (GDs). Furthermore, it discusses potential future approaches in the regulation of this signaling pathway that could represent an innovative and promising therapeutical target, also for ovarian cancer treatment.
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