In the recent past, hyper-spectral imaging has found widespread application in forensic science, performing both geometric characterization of biological traces and trace classification by exploiting their spectral emission. Methods proposed in the literature for blood stain analysis have been shown to be effectively limited to collaborative surfaces. This proves to be restrictive in real-case scenarios. The problem of the substrate material and color is then still an open issue for blood stain analysis. This paper presents a novel method for blood spectra correction when contaminated by the influence of the substrate, exploiting a neural network-based approach. Blood stains hyper-spectral images deposited on 12 different substrates for 12 days at regular intervals were acquired via a hyper-spectral camera. The data collected were used to train and test the developed neural network model. Starting from the spectra of a blood stain deposited in a generic substrate, the algorithm at first recognizes whether it is blood or not, then allows to obtain the spectra that the same blood stain, at the same time, would have on a reference white substrate with a mean absolute percentage error of 1.11%. Uncertainty analysis has also been performed by comparing the ground truth reflectance spectra with the predicted ones by the neural model.
Correction of Substrate Spectral Distortion in Hyper-Spectral Imaging by Neural Network for Blood Stain Characterization / Giulietti, Nicola; Discepolo, Silvia; Castellini, Paolo; Martarelli, Milena. - In: SENSORS. - ISSN 1424-8220. - 22:19(2022), p. 7311. [10.3390/s22197311]