Glyoxalase 2 is a mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase family encoded by the hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (HAGH) gene. This enzyme is the second enzyme of the glyoxalase system that is responsible for detoxification of the α-ketothaldehyde methylglyoxal in cells. The two enzymes glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and glyoxalase 2 (Glo2) form the complete glyoxalase pathway, which utilizes glutathione as cofactor in eukaryotic cells. The importance of Glo2 is highlighted by its ubiquitous distribution in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Its function in the system has been well defined, but in recent years, additional roles are emerging, especially those related to oxidative stress. This review focuses on Glo2 by considering its genetics, molecular and structural properties, its involvement in post-translational modifications and its interaction with specific metabolic pathways. The purpose of this review is to focus attention on an enzyme that, from the most recent studies, appears to play a role in multiple regulatory pathways that may be important in certain diseases such as cancer or oxidative stress-related diseases.
Glyoxalase 2: Towards a Broader View of the Second Player of the Glyoxalase System / Scire', Andrea Antonino; Cianfruglia, Laura; Minnelli, Cristina; Romaldi, Brenda; Laudadio, Emiliano; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antognelli, Cinzia; Armeni, Tatiana. - In: ANTIOXIDANTS. - ISSN 2076-3921. - ELETTRONICO. - 11:11(2022), p. 2131. [10.3390/antiox11112131]