Sarcopenia is characterized by loss of muscle mass, altered muscle composition, fat and fibrous tissue infiltration, and abnormal innervation, especially in older individuals with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs). Several techniques for measuring muscle mass, strength, and performance have emerged in recent decades. The portable dynamometer and gait speed represent the most frequently used tools for the evaluation of muscle strength and physical efficiency, respectively. Aside from dual-energy, X-ray, absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques appear to have a potential role in evaluating muscle mass and composition. US and MRI have been shown to accurately identify sarcopenic biomarkers such as inflammation (edema), fatty infiltration (myosteatosis), alterations in muscle fibers, and muscular atrophy in patients with IMRDs. US is a low-cost, easy-to-use, and safe imaging method for assessing muscle mass, quality, architecture, and biomechanical function. This review summarizes the evidence for using US and MRI to assess sarcopenia.
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging as diagnostic tools for sarcopenia in immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) / Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Di Matteo, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Luca; Farah, Sonia; Villota-Eraso, Catalina; Di Carlo, Marco; Giovagnoni, Andrea. - In: LA RADIOLOGIA MEDICA. - ISSN 1826-6983. - STAMPA. - (2022). [10.1007/s11547-022-01560-y]