The main aim of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarise the evidence in the use of biological therapies in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). We performed a SLR using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. Only studies reporting the efficacy of biologics in CPPD were selected. The search resulted in 83 articles; 11 were further evaluated in the SLR. Seventy-six patients were included: 2 received infliximab, whereas 74 anakinra. Anakinra was used in refractory disease (85.1%) or in patients with contraindications to standard treatments (23.0%). Clinical response to anakinra was observed in 80.6% of patients with acute and 42.9% of those with chronic CPPD. Short-term treatment was well tolerated and adverse events were reported in 4.1% of the cases. This review provides evidence in favour of the use of anakinra as a therapeutic option in patients with CPPD, especially in acute refractory CPPD or when standard treatments are contraindicated.
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