Pulmonary surfactant is a complex lipoprotein mixture secreted into the alveo-lar lumen by type 2 pneumocytes, which is composed by tens of different lipids (approx-imately 90% of its entire mass) and surfactant proteins (approximately 10% of the mass). It is crucially involved in maintaining lung homeostasis by reducing the values of alveolar liquid surface tension close to zero at end-expiration, thereby avoiding the alveolar col-lapse, and assembling a chemical and physical barrier against inhaled pathogens. A deficient amount of surfactant or its functional inactivation is directly linked to a wide range of lung pathologies, including the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. This paper re-views the main biophysical concepts of surfactant activity and its inactivation mecha-nisms, and describes the past, present and future roles of surfactant replacement therapy, focusing on the exogenous surfactant preparations marketed worldwide and new formulations under development. The closing section describes the pulmonary surfactant in the context of drug delivery. Thanks to its peculiar composition, biocompatibility, and alveo-lar spreading capability, the surfactant may work not only as a shuttle to the branched anatomy of the lung for other drugs but also as a modulator for their release, leading to innovative therapeutic avenues for the treatment of several respiratory diseases.

Pulmonary Surfactant: A Unique Biomaterial with Life-saving Therapeutic Applications / Pioselli, B.; Salomone, F.; Mazzola, G.; Amidani, D.; Sgarbi, E.; Amadei, F.; Murgia, X.; Catinella, S.; Villetti, G.; De Luca, D.; Carnielli, V.; Civelli, M.. - In: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0929-8673. - STAMPA. - 29:3(2022), pp. 526-590. [10.2174/0929867328666210825110421]

Pulmonary Surfactant: A Unique Biomaterial with Life-saving Therapeutic Applications

Carnielli V.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex lipoprotein mixture secreted into the alveo-lar lumen by type 2 pneumocytes, which is composed by tens of different lipids (approx-imately 90% of its entire mass) and surfactant proteins (approximately 10% of the mass). It is crucially involved in maintaining lung homeostasis by reducing the values of alveolar liquid surface tension close to zero at end-expiration, thereby avoiding the alveolar col-lapse, and assembling a chemical and physical barrier against inhaled pathogens. A deficient amount of surfactant or its functional inactivation is directly linked to a wide range of lung pathologies, including the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. This paper re-views the main biophysical concepts of surfactant activity and its inactivation mecha-nisms, and describes the past, present and future roles of surfactant replacement therapy, focusing on the exogenous surfactant preparations marketed worldwide and new formulations under development. The closing section describes the pulmonary surfactant in the context of drug delivery. Thanks to its peculiar composition, biocompatibility, and alveo-lar spreading capability, the surfactant may work not only as a shuttle to the branched anatomy of the lung for other drugs but also as a modulator for their release, leading to innovative therapeutic avenues for the treatment of several respiratory diseases.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/298263
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