Breast cancer is one of the main leading causes of women death. In recent years, attention has been focused on the role of lipoproteins, alterations of cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress in the molecular mechanism of breast cancer. A role for high density lipoproteins (HDL) has been proposed, in fact, in addition to the role of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), HDL exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, modulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction and proliferation. Low levels of HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) have been demonstrated in patients affected by breast cancer and it has been suggested that low levels of HDL-C could represent a risk factor of breast cancer. Contrasting results have been observed by other authors. Recent studies have demonstrated alterations of the activity of some enzymes associated to HDL surface such as Paraoxonase (PON1), Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Higher levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in plasma or serum of patients have also been observed and suggest dysfunctional HDL in breast cancer patients. The review summarizes results on levels of markers of oxidative stress of plasma lipids and on alterations of enzymes associated to HDL in patients affected by breast cancer. The effects of normal and dysfunctional HDL on human breast cancer cells and molecular mechanisms potentially involved will be also reviewed.
High density lipoproteins and oxidative stress in breast cancer / Mazzuferi, G.; Bacchetti, T.; Islam, M. O.; Ferretti, G.. - In: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. - ISSN 1476-511X. - 20:1(2021), p. 143. [10.1186/s12944-021-01562-1]