The Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) list has been defined based on economic importance and supply risk by the European Commission. This review paper describes two issues regarding critical raw materials: the possibilities of their substitution in iron-based alloys and the use of iron-based alloys instead of other materials in order to save CRMs. This review covers strategies for saving chromium in stainless steel, substitution or lowering the amounts of carbide-forming elements (especially tungsten and vanadium) in tool steel and alternative iron-based CRM-free and low-CRM materials: austempered ductile cast iron, high-temperature alloys based on intermetallics of iron and sintered diamond tools with an iron-containing low-cobalt binder.
Solutions of Critical Raw Materials Issues Regarding Iron-Based Alloys / Novak, P.; Bellezze, T.; Cabibbo, M.; Gamsjager, E.; Wiessner, M.; Rajnovic, D.; Jaworska, L.; Hanus, P.; Shishkin, A.; Goel, S.. - In: MATERIALS. - ISSN 1996-1944. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:4(2021), p. 899. [10.3390/ma14040899]