Dityromycin is a peptide antibiotic isolated from the culture broth of the soil microorganism Streptomyces sp. strain AM-2504. Recent structural studies have shown that dityromycin targets the ribosomal protein S12 in the 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting translocation. Herein, by using in vitro protein synthesis assays, we identified the resistance mechanism of the producer strain to the secondary metabolite dityromycin. The results show that the self-resistance mechanism of the Streptomyces sp. strain AM-2504 is due to a specific modification of the ribosome. In particular, two amino acid substitutions, located in a highly conserved region of the S12 protein corresponding to the binding site of the antibiotic, were found. These mutations cause a substantial loss of affinity of the dityromycin for the 30S ribosomal subunit, protecting the producer strain from the toxic effect of the antibiotic. In addition to providing a detailed description of the first mechanism of selfresistance based on a mutated ribosomal protein, this work demonstrates that the molecular determinants of the dityromycin resistance identified in Streptomyces can be transferred to Escherichia coli ribosomes, where they can trigger the same antibiotic resistance mechanism found in the producer strain.
Characterization of the self-resistance mechanism to dityromycin in the Streptomyces producer strain / Fabbretti, A.; Capuni, R.; Giuliodori, A. M.; Cimarelli, L.; Miano, A.; Napolioni, V.; La Teana, A.; Spurio, R.. - In: MSPHERE. - ISSN 2379-5042. - ELETTRONICO. - 4:5(2019). [10.1128/mSphere.00554-19]