Abstract BACKGROUND: Infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among liver transplant (LT) recipients. The aim of our study was to define the factors associated with outcome of early bacterial and fungal infections in a cohort of patients who underwent LT at the University Hospital of Ancona over a nine year period. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent LT in our center were considered. An early infection was defined as occurring in the first month post-transplantation. RESULTS: Among 330 patients who underwent LT from August 2005 to October 2014, 88 (27 %) had at least one infection documented within 30 days after transplantation. In 54 cases only one site was involved, in 34 cases ≥2 sites. There were 43 (30 %) pneumonia, 40 (27 %) surgical site infections, 31 (22 %) blood stream infections, and 30 (21 %) urinary tract infections. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 64 % of the culture-positive cases, followed by Gram-positive bacteria (30 %) and fungi (6 %). A high proportion of drug-resistant strains was found within either Gram-negative (79 %) or Gram-positive (81 %) bacteria. There were 27 out 88 patients (31 %) who died within 180 days from the transplant. Factors independently associated with a higher risk of mortality were: renal replacement therapy (HR 11.797 [CI95 % 3.082-45.152], p < 0.0001), multisite infections (HR 4.865 [CI95 % 1.417-16.700], p = 0.012) and being infected with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP; HR 5.562 [CI95 % 1.186-26.088], p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data indicate that early infections in LT patients are characterized by significant mortality. In particular, an early infection caused by CRKP has an adverse impact on survival in these patients suggesting an urgent need for adopting preventive measures to avoiding this complication. KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonaie; Early infections; Immunosuppression; Liver transplantation
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