The bioavailability of carotenoids and the protective effect exerted by Brassica vegetables against lipoprotein peroxidation has not previously been investigated in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of carotenoids in black (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala subvar. Laciniata L) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.f. rubra) and their protective effect against LDL oxidation. Moreover, we studied the effect on plasma lipid profile. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (23 females and 15 males) participated in the 2-week intervention study which included a daily portion (300 g) of black and red cabbage. Plasma lutein and β-carotene levels and total antioxidant capacity after dietary intervention were significantly increased. The results obtained demonstrated that Brassica supplementation favourably influenced serum lipid profile with a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Moreover, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the effect of dietary intervention could be modulated by baseline conditions of the subjects
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