gamma-Glutamyl hydrolase ( GGH, EC 3.4.19.9) catalyzes removal of the polyglutamyl tail from folyl and p-aminobenzoyl polyglutamates. Plants typically have one or a few GGH genes; Arabidopsis has three, tandemly arranged on chromosome 1, which encode proteins with predicted secretory pathway signal peptides. Two representative Arabidopsis GGH proteins, AtGGH1 and AtGGH2 ( the At1g78660 and At1g78680 gene products, respectively) were expressed in truncated form in Escherichia coli and purified. Both enzymes were active as dimers, had low Km values (0.5-2 mu M) for folyl and p-aminobenzoyl pentaglutamates, and acted as endopeptidases. However, despite 80% sequence identity, they differed in that AtGGH1 cleaved pentaglutamates, mainly to di-and triglutamates, whereas AtGGH2 yielded mainly monoglutamates. Analysis of subcellular fractions of pea leaves and red beet roots established that GGH activity is confined to the vacuole and that this activity, if not so sequestered, would deglutamylate all cellular folylpolyglutamates within minutes. Purified pea leaf vacuoles contained an average of 20% of the total cellular folate compared with similar to 50 and similar to 10%, respectively, in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The main vacuolar folate was 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, of which 51% was polyglutamylated. In contrast, the principal mitochondrial and chloroplastic forms were 5-formyl-and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate polyglutamates, respectively. In beet roots, 16-60% of the folate was vacuolar and was again mainly 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, of which 76% was polyglutamylated. These data point to a hitherto unsuspected role for vacuoles in folate storage. Furthermore, the paradoxical co-occurrence of GGH and folylpolyglutamates in vacuoles implies that the polyglutamates are somehow protected from GGH attack.

Plant gamma-glutamyl hydrolases and folate polyglutamates: characterization, compartmentation, and co-occurrence in vacuoles / Orsomando, Giuseppe; de la Garza, Rd; Green, Bj; Peng, M; Rea, Pa; Ryan, Tj; Gregory JF, 3rd; Hanson, Ad. - In: THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0021-9258. - STAMPA. - 280:32(2005), pp. 28877-28884. [10.1074/jbc.M504306200]

Plant gamma-glutamyl hydrolases and folate polyglutamates: characterization, compartmentation, and co-occurrence in vacuoles

ORSOMANDO, Giuseppe;
2005-01-01

Abstract

gamma-Glutamyl hydrolase ( GGH, EC 3.4.19.9) catalyzes removal of the polyglutamyl tail from folyl and p-aminobenzoyl polyglutamates. Plants typically have one or a few GGH genes; Arabidopsis has three, tandemly arranged on chromosome 1, which encode proteins with predicted secretory pathway signal peptides. Two representative Arabidopsis GGH proteins, AtGGH1 and AtGGH2 ( the At1g78660 and At1g78680 gene products, respectively) were expressed in truncated form in Escherichia coli and purified. Both enzymes were active as dimers, had low Km values (0.5-2 mu M) for folyl and p-aminobenzoyl pentaglutamates, and acted as endopeptidases. However, despite 80% sequence identity, they differed in that AtGGH1 cleaved pentaglutamates, mainly to di-and triglutamates, whereas AtGGH2 yielded mainly monoglutamates. Analysis of subcellular fractions of pea leaves and red beet roots established that GGH activity is confined to the vacuole and that this activity, if not so sequestered, would deglutamylate all cellular folylpolyglutamates within minutes. Purified pea leaf vacuoles contained an average of 20% of the total cellular folate compared with similar to 50 and similar to 10%, respectively, in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The main vacuolar folate was 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, of which 51% was polyglutamylated. In contrast, the principal mitochondrial and chloroplastic forms were 5-formyl-and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate polyglutamates, respectively. In beet roots, 16-60% of the folate was vacuolar and was again mainly 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, of which 76% was polyglutamylated. These data point to a hitherto unsuspected role for vacuoles in folate storage. Furthermore, the paradoxical co-occurrence of GGH and folylpolyglutamates in vacuoles implies that the polyglutamates are somehow protected from GGH attack.
2005
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/33891
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