Background: Hikikomori (HK) is characterized by self-isolation and social refusal, being more likely also associated with affective disorders, including depression. This case–control study primarily aimed at identifying (if any) predominant affective temperaments are associated with HK in depressed versus not-depressed individuals. Secondary objectives comprise assessing which other psychopathological dimensions (e.g., boredom, anxiety) are associated with the HK specifier in depressed individuals. Methods: From the larger SWATCH study, 687 Italian young people were screened for depression, as measured by 9 items-Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and HK-like social withdrawal, through the Hikikomori Questionnaire-25 (HQ-25). All subjects were administered a brief-Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-M), the 7 items-Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS). Results: Males reported significantly higher scores at HQ-25 total score than females (p = 0.026). In the total sample, HK social withdrawal is positively predicted by MSBS low arousal, disengagement, depressive levels, depressive and irritable affective temperaments, while negatively by anxiety (F(6, 680) = 82.336, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.421). By selecting only depressed sample, HQ-25 is positively predicted by MSBS total score, low arousal and depressive affective temperament, while negatively by MSBS high arousal (F(4, 383) = 48.544, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.336). The logistic regression model found that the likelihood of developing depression with the HK specifier is significantly predicted by depressive and cyclothymic affective temperaments. Conclusions: These preliminary findings could help in clinically characterizing the relationship between specific affective temperamental profiles among individuals with depression with/without HK specifier, in order to provide a more tailored and personalized therapeutic approach. Our Italian study should be extensively replicated in larger, longitudinal and multicentric pan-European studies, by specifically assessing the impact of these findings on depression clinical course, prognosis and treatment outcomes.

Predominant affective temperaments in depressive patients with severe social withdrawal / Orsolini, Laura; Longo, Giulio; Bellagamba, Silvia; Kato, Takahiro A.; Volpe, Umberto. - In: ANNALS OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 1744-859X. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:1(2024). [10.1186/s12991-024-00496-z]

Predominant affective temperaments in depressive patients with severe social withdrawal

Orsolini, Laura
;
Longo, Giulio;Bellagamba, Silvia;Volpe, Umberto
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Hikikomori (HK) is characterized by self-isolation and social refusal, being more likely also associated with affective disorders, including depression. This case–control study primarily aimed at identifying (if any) predominant affective temperaments are associated with HK in depressed versus not-depressed individuals. Secondary objectives comprise assessing which other psychopathological dimensions (e.g., boredom, anxiety) are associated with the HK specifier in depressed individuals. Methods: From the larger SWATCH study, 687 Italian young people were screened for depression, as measured by 9 items-Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and HK-like social withdrawal, through the Hikikomori Questionnaire-25 (HQ-25). All subjects were administered a brief-Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-M), the 7 items-Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS). Results: Males reported significantly higher scores at HQ-25 total score than females (p = 0.026). In the total sample, HK social withdrawal is positively predicted by MSBS low arousal, disengagement, depressive levels, depressive and irritable affective temperaments, while negatively by anxiety (F(6, 680) = 82.336, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.421). By selecting only depressed sample, HQ-25 is positively predicted by MSBS total score, low arousal and depressive affective temperament, while negatively by MSBS high arousal (F(4, 383) = 48.544, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.336). The logistic regression model found that the likelihood of developing depression with the HK specifier is significantly predicted by depressive and cyclothymic affective temperaments. Conclusions: These preliminary findings could help in clinically characterizing the relationship between specific affective temperamental profiles among individuals with depression with/without HK specifier, in order to provide a more tailored and personalized therapeutic approach. Our Italian study should be extensively replicated in larger, longitudinal and multicentric pan-European studies, by specifically assessing the impact of these findings on depression clinical course, prognosis and treatment outcomes.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/327998
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