Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) comprise a distinct group of diseases with different manifestations that can occur in both pediatric and adult patients. They can be hereditary or acquired, with subtle onset or a rapidly progressive course, and they are particularly known for their morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a high-risk time for the development of several types of thrombotic microangiopathies. The three major syndromes are hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, and low platelets (HELLP); hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Because of their rarity, clinical information and therapeutic results related to these conditions are often obtained from case reports, small series, registries, and reviews. The collection of individual observations, the evolution of diagnostic laboratories that have identified autoimmune and/or genetic abnormalities using von Willebrand factor post-secretion processing or genetic-functional alterations in the regulation of alternative complement pathways in some of these TMAs, and, most importantly, the introduction of advanced treatments, have enabled the preservation of affected organs and improved survival rates. Although TMAs may show different etiopathogenesis routes, they all show the presence of pathological lesions, which are characterized by endothelial damage and the formation of thrombi rich in platelets at the microvascular level, as a common denominator, and thrombotic damage to microcirculation pathways induces "mechanical" (microangiopathic) hemolytic anemia, the consumption of platelets, and ischemic organ damage. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about the diagnosis and management of these complications during pregnancy.

HELLP Syndrome and Differential Diagnosis with Other Thrombotic Microangiopathies in Pregnancy / Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Marzioni, Daniela; Tossetta, Giovanni; Ciavattini, Andrea. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 14:4(2024). [10.3390/diagnostics14040352]

HELLP Syndrome and Differential Diagnosis with Other Thrombotic Microangiopathies in Pregnancy

Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele
;
Marzioni, Daniela;Tossetta, Giovanni;Ciavattini, Andrea
2024-01-01

Abstract

Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) comprise a distinct group of diseases with different manifestations that can occur in both pediatric and adult patients. They can be hereditary or acquired, with subtle onset or a rapidly progressive course, and they are particularly known for their morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a high-risk time for the development of several types of thrombotic microangiopathies. The three major syndromes are hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, and low platelets (HELLP); hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Because of their rarity, clinical information and therapeutic results related to these conditions are often obtained from case reports, small series, registries, and reviews. The collection of individual observations, the evolution of diagnostic laboratories that have identified autoimmune and/or genetic abnormalities using von Willebrand factor post-secretion processing or genetic-functional alterations in the regulation of alternative complement pathways in some of these TMAs, and, most importantly, the introduction of advanced treatments, have enabled the preservation of affected organs and improved survival rates. Although TMAs may show different etiopathogenesis routes, they all show the presence of pathological lesions, which are characterized by endothelial damage and the formation of thrombi rich in platelets at the microvascular level, as a common denominator, and thrombotic damage to microcirculation pathways induces "mechanical" (microangiopathic) hemolytic anemia, the consumption of platelets, and ischemic organ damage. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about the diagnosis and management of these complications during pregnancy.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/327497
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