Objectives: This in vitro study aimed assessing the remineralization potential of three commercial fluoride-based toothpastes in permanent teeth with natural white spot lesions (WSLs). A multidisciplinary approach based on Raman microspectroscopy (RMS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Vickers microhardness (VMH) was exploited. Methods: N = 12 human molars with natural WSLs in the proximal-vestibular zone were selected and divided into 4 groups (n = 3) according to the different treatments: HAF (hydroxyapatite with fluoride ions); SMF (sodium monofluorophosphate with arginine); SF (sodium fluoride with enzymes), and CTRL (untreated group). All toothpastes tested contained 1450 ppm of fluoride. Teeth samples were submitted to the following protocol: a 7-day pH cycling treatment, with two daily exposures (2 min each time) to the commercial toothpastes described above. The surface micromorphology (SEM), the chemical/elemental composition (RMS and EDS), and the Vickers microhardness (VMH) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A remarkable remineralization of WSLs in SEM images was observed in all treated groups compared to CTRL. In particular, HAF and SF displayed higher values of VMH, phosphates amount (I960), crystallinity (FWHM960), and lower ones of C/P (I1070/I960) with respect to CTRL. Intermediate values were found in SMF, higher than CTRL but lower with respect to HAF and SF. As regards the Ca/P ratio, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between SF and the other groups. Conclusions: All the tested dentifrices have shown to remineralize the WSLs. SF and HAF have comparable capability in hardness recovery and crystallinity; however, SF shows the best remineralizing potential according to both micromorphological and chemical analyses. Clinical relevance The daily use of toothpastes containing hydroxyapatite partially replaced with fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate with arginine and sodium fluoride toothpaste associated with enzymes represents a preventive, therapeutic, effective, and non-invasive tool for remineralize WSLs.
Multidisciplinary evaluation of the remineralization potential of three fluoride-based toothpastes on natural white spot lesions / Orilisi, Giulia; Vitiello, Flavia; Notarstefano, Valentina; Furlani, Michele; Riberti, Nicole; Monterubbianesi, Riccardo; Bellezze, Tiziano; Campus, Guglielmo; Carrouel, Florence; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo. - In: CLINICAL ORAL INVESTIGATIONS. - ISSN 1436-3771. - ELETTRONICO. - (2023). [10.1007/s00784-023-05334-2]