Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and typically interact with specific target mRNAs through complementary base pairing, affecting their translation and/or stability. MiRNAs regulate nearly all cellular functions, including the cell fate of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). It is now accepted that various pathologies arise at the stem level, and, in this scenario, the role played by miRNAs in the fate of MSCs becomes of primary concern. Here we have considered the existing literature in the field of miRNAs, MSCs and skin diseases, classified as inflammatory (such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis-AD) and neoplastic (melanoma and non-melanoma-skin-cancer including squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma) diseases. In this scoping review article, the evidence recovered indicates that this topic has attracted attention, but it is still a matter of opinion. A protocol for this review was registered in PROSPERO with the registration number "CRD42023420245". According to the different skin disorders and to the specific cellular mechanisms considered (cancer stem cells, extracellular vesicles, inflammation), miRNAs may play a pro- or anti-inflammatory, as well as a tumor suppressive, or supporting, role, indicating a complex regulation of their function. It is evident that the mode of action of miRNAs is more than a switch on-off, and all the observed effects of their dysregulated expression must be checked in a detailed analysis of the targeted proteins. The involvement of miRNAs has been studied mainly for squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, and much less in psoriasis and AD; different mechanisms have been considered, such as miRNAs included in extracellular vesicles derived both from MSCs or tumor cells, miRNAs involved in cancer stem cells formation, up to miRNAs as candidates to be new therapeutic tools.
miRNAs, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Major Neoplastic and Inflammatory Skin Diseases: A Page Being Written: A Systematic Review / Di Vincenzo, Mariangela; Diotallevi, Federico; Piccirillo, Silvia; Carnevale, Gianluca; Offidani, Annamaria; Campanati, Anna; Orciani, Monia. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 24:10(2023), p. 8502. [10.3390/ijms24108502]