Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are represented by several compounds used to ameliorate the image, the appearance, or an athletic or non-athletic performance. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous molecule first used as anesthetic and then marketed as a nutritional supplement with a wide diffusion in the bodybuilding community. The aim of the present work is to provide a toxicological characterization of the use of GHB as a PED, including the scientific basis for its use, the patterns of use/abuse, and the health risks arising from its consumption in this peculiar recreative setting. A literature search was performed on multiple databases including experimental studies on humans and animals as well as epidemiological reports and forensic case reports/series. Experimental studies demonstrated that the use of GHB as a PED is motivated by the release of growth hormone and the induction of sleep. However, the panel of desired performance-related effects was much wider in real cases and epidemiological studies. Even though the use of GHB among bodybuilders has decreased, its use to enhance some kind of performance, particularly sexual ones or social-communicative ones, as well as means to increase mood and perceived energy, is still common.

Toxicological Characterization of GHB as a Performance-Enhancing Drug / Giorgetti, Arianna; Busardo', Francesco Paolo; Giorgetti, Raffaele. - In: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 1664-0640. - 13:(2022), p. 846983. [10.3389/fpsyt.2022.846983]

Toxicological Characterization of GHB as a Performance-Enhancing Drug

Giorgetti, Arianna;Busardo', Francesco Paolo;Giorgetti, Raffaele
2022-01-01

Abstract

Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are represented by several compounds used to ameliorate the image, the appearance, or an athletic or non-athletic performance. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous molecule first used as anesthetic and then marketed as a nutritional supplement with a wide diffusion in the bodybuilding community. The aim of the present work is to provide a toxicological characterization of the use of GHB as a PED, including the scientific basis for its use, the patterns of use/abuse, and the health risks arising from its consumption in this peculiar recreative setting. A literature search was performed on multiple databases including experimental studies on humans and animals as well as epidemiological reports and forensic case reports/series. Experimental studies demonstrated that the use of GHB as a PED is motivated by the release of growth hormone and the induction of sleep. However, the panel of desired performance-related effects was much wider in real cases and epidemiological studies. Even though the use of GHB among bodybuilders has decreased, its use to enhance some kind of performance, particularly sexual ones or social-communicative ones, as well as means to increase mood and perceived energy, is still common.
2022
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/322025
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact