The increasing use of wireless communication and IoT devices has raised concerns about security, particularly with regard to attacks on the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL), such as the wormhole attack. In this study, the authors have used the trust concept called PCC-RPL (Parental Change Control RPL) over communicating nodes on IoT networks which prevents unsolicited parent changes by utilizing the trust concept. The aim of this study is to make the RPL protocol more secure by using a Subjective Logic Framework-based trust model to detect and mitigate a wormhole attack. The study evaluates the trust-based designed framework known as SLF-RPL (Subjective Logical Framework-Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) over various key parameters, i.e., low energy consumption, packet loss ratio and attack detection rate. The achieved results were conducted using a Contiki OS-based Cooja Network simulator with 30, 60, and 90 nodes with respect to a 1:10 malicious node ratio and compared with the existing PCC-RPL protocol. The results show that the proposed SLF-RPL framework demonstrates higher efficiency (0.0504 J to 0.0728 J out of 1 J) than PCC-RPL (0.065 J to 0.0963 J out of 1 J) in terms of energy consumption at the node level, a decreased packet loss ratio of 16% at the node level, and an increased attack detection rate at network level from 0.42 to 0.55 in comparison with PCC-RPL.
A Subjective Logical Framework-Based Trust Model for Wormhole Attack Detection and Mitigation in Low-Power and Lossy (RPL) IoT-Networks / Javed, Sarmad; Sajid, Ahthasham; Kiren, Tayybah; Khan, Inam Ullah; Dewi, Christine; Cauteruccio, Francesco; Christanto, Henoch Juli. - In: INFORMATION. - ISSN 2078-2489. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:9(2023), p. 478. [10.3390/info14090478]