The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence, severity of extension, and risk factors of gingivitis among pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, 220 nulliparous women at 3 months of pregnancy were recruited in 2022 at the first obstetrical visit in Dakar, Senegal. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, prenatal clinical status, and oral clinical parameters were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess relationships between gingivitis and risk factors. Eighty-eight percent of women had gingivitis, 15% were classified as moderate and 73% as severe. A total of 66.7% (95% CI [28.8-92.1]) of the sites had bleeding on interdental brushing. The odds for gingivitis decreased significantly for women consuming more than five portions of fruits and vegetables per day (OR = 0.15; 95% CI [0.03-0.66]) and increased in women who had a professional activity (OR = 6.75; 95% CI [1.27-35.87]) and high education. Concomitantly, the percentage of dental plaque (OR = 131.6; 95% CI [10.80-1619.71] and the severity of clinical attachment loss (OR = 7.70; 95% CI [3.16-18.92]) were important risk factors. Inverse associations were observed with increasing body mass index (OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.63-0.93]). Our results underline that gingivitis cases and bleeding were particularly high among 3-month pregnant women. Literacy and adequate oral hygiene actions to modify behaviors and to achieve meticulous biofilm disorganization could make a favorable change in the gingival health outcome. Additionally, further research is necessary to precisely determine the role of biofilm-induced gingivitis and systemic-induced gingivitis in improving gingival conditions.
Prevalence, Severity of Extension, and Risk Factors of Gingivitis in a 3-Month Pregnant Population: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study / Gare, Jocelyne; Kanoute, Aida; Orsini, Giovanna; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Ali Alshehri, Fahad; Bourgeois, Denis; Carrouel, Florence. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 12:9(2023), p. 3349. [10.3390/jcm12093349]