Background Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the first choice to induce remission and promote mucosal healing in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). However, full adherence to EEN treatment may be problematic for children with CD. Methods The goal of the current multicenter retrospective study was to define predictive factors of nonadherence to treatment and nonremission at the end of induction treatment. Those data together were analyzed with the ultimate goal of trying to define an individualized induction treatment for children with CD. Results Three hundred seventy-six children with CD from 14 IBD pediatric referral centers were enrolled in the study. The rate of EEN adherence was 89%. Colonic involvement and fecal calprotectin >600 mu g/g at diagnosis were found to be associated with a reduced EEN adherence. Exclusive enteral nutrition administered for 8 weeks was effective for inducing clinical remission in 67% of the total cohort. Factors determining lower remission rates were age >15 years and Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index >50. Conclusion Although EEN is extremely effective in promoting disease remission, several patients' related factors may adversely impact EEN adherence and response. Personalized treatments should be proposed that weigh benefits and risks based on the patient's disease location, phenotype, and disease activity and aim to promote a rapid control of inflammation to reduce long-term bowel damage.
Induction of Remission With Exclusive Enteral Nutrition in Children With Crohn's Disease: Determinants of Higher Adherence and Response / Cuomo, Marialaura; Carobbio, Alessandra; Aloi, Marina; Alvisi, Patrizia; Banzato, Claudia; Bosa, Luca; Bramuzzo, Matteo; Campanozzi, Angelo; Catassi, Giulia; D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Di Paola, Monica; Felici, Enrico; Fioretti, Maria Teresa; Gatti, Simona; Graziano, Francesco; Lega, Sara; Lionetti, Paolo; Marseglia, Antonio; Martinelli, Massimo; Musto, Francesca; Sansotta, Naire; Scarallo, Luca; Zuin, Giovanna; Norsa, Lorenzo. - In: INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. - ISSN 1078-0998. - (2022). [10.1093/ibd/izac215]