: Cutaneous melanoma is a severe neoplasm that shows early invasiveness of the lymph nodes draining the primary site, with increased risk of distant metastases and recurrence. The tissue biomarker identification could be a new frontier to predict the risk of early lymph node invasiveness, especially in cases considered by current guidelines to be at low risk of lymph node involvement and not requiring evaluation of the sentinel lymph node (SLN). For this reason, we present a narrative review of the literature, seeking to provide an overview of current tissue biomarkers, particularly vascular endothelium growth factors (VEGF), Tetraspanin CD9, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), D2-40, and gene expression profile test (31-GEP). Among these, 31-GEP seems to be able to provide a distinction between low or high risk for positive SLN classes. VEGF receptor-3 and CD9 expression may be independent predictors of positive SLN. Lastly, LYVE-1 and D2-40 allow an easier assessment of lymph vascular invasion, which can be considered a good predictor of SLN status. In conclusion, biomarkers to assess the lymph node status of cutaneous melanoma patients may play an important role in those cases where the clinician is in doubt whether or not to perform SLN biopsy.
Tissue Biomarkers Predicting Lymph Node Status in Cutaneous Melanoma / Rizzetto, Giulio; Lucarini, Guendalina; De Simoni, Edoardo; Molinelli, Elisa; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Offidani, Annamaria; Simonetti, Oriana. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - ELETTRONICO. - 24:1(2022). [10.3390/ijms24010144]