IntroductionUntreated Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cortisol normalization is a key goal to treatment. Pituitary surgery remains the first-line approach for Cushing's disease, but sometimes it is impracticable, unsuccessful, or complicated by recurrence. Medical therapy has been historically considered a palliative. However, in the latest years, interest on this topic has grown due to both the availability of new drugs and the reevaluation of the old, commonly used drugs in clinical practice.Areas coveredIn this article, we will discuss the current options and future directions of medical therapy for CS, aiming at fitting best patients' features. An extensive literature search regarding already approved and investigational principles was conducted (PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov. Available drugs include inhibitors of ACTH secretion, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists; drugs acting at different levels can be also combined in uncontrolled patients.Expert opinionSince there is still no standardized pharmacological approach and the superiority of one drug over another has not been established yet in the absence of comparative studies, each time clinicians' choices should be patient-tailored. Age, gender, tumor features, severity of hypercortisolism, comorbidities/complications, rapidity of action, side effects, drug-drug interactions, contraindications, availability, patients' preferences, and costs should be all considered.
An evaluation of pharmacological options for Cushing's disease: what are the state-of-the-art options? / 1, Marianna Martino; 1, Nairus Aboud; 1, Beatrice Lucchetti; 1, Gianmaria Salvio; Arnaldi, Giorgio. - In: EXPERT OPINION ON PHARMACOTHERAPY. - ISSN 1465-6566. - 24:5(2023), pp. 557-576. [10.1080/14656566.2023.2192349]