Purpose of review: Pronagnosia is a rare acquired or developmental pathological condition that consists of a selective difficulty to recognize familiar people by their voices. It can be distinguished into two different categories: apperceptive phonagnosia, which denotes a purely perceptual form of voice recognition disorder; and associative phonagnosia, in which patients have no perceptual defects, but cannot evaluate if the voice of a known person is or not familiar. The neural substrate of these two forms of voice recognition is still controversial, but it could concern different components of the core temporal voice areas and of extratemporal voice processing areas. This article reviews recent research on the neuropsychological and anatomo-clinical aspects of this condition. Recent findings: Data obtained in group studies or single case reports of phonagnosic patients suggest that apperceptive phonagnosia might be due to disruption of the core temporal voice areas, bilaterally located in the posterior parts of the superior temporal gyrus, whereas associative phonagnosia might result from impaired access to structures where voice representations are stored, due to a disconnection of these areas from structures of the voice extended system. Although these results must be confirmed by further investigations, they represent an important step toward understanding the nature and neural substrate of apperceptive and associative forms of phonagnosia.
Apperceptive and Associative Forms of Phonagnosia / Gainotti, Guido; Quaranta, Davide; Luzzi, Simona. - In: CURRENT NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE REPORTS. - ISSN 1528-4042. - (2023). [10.1007/s11910-023-01271-5]