Herpesviridae reactivation such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been described in severe COVID-19 (COronaVIrusDisease-2019). This study aimed to understand if CMV reactivation in older COVID-19 patients is associated with increased inflammation and in-hospital mortality. In an observational single-center cohort study, 156 geriatric COVID-19 patients were screened for CMV reactivation by RT-PCR. Participants underwent a comprehensive clinical investigation that included medical history, functional evaluation, laboratory tests and cytokine assays (TNF-a, IFN-a, IL-6, IL-10) at hospital admission. In 19 (12.2%) of 156 COVID-19 patients, CMV reactivation was detected. Multivariate Cox regression models showed that in-hospital mortality significantly increased among CMV positive patients younger than 87 years (HR: 9.94, 95% CI: 1.66-59.50). Other factors associated with in-hospital mortality were C-reactive protein (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30), neutrophil count (HR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42) and clinical frailty scale (HR:1.54, 95% CI: 1.04-2.28). In patients older than 87 years, neutrophil count (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21) and age (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CMV reactivation was also correlated with increased IFN-a and TNF-a serum levels, but not with IL-6 and IL-10 serum changes. In conclusion, CMV reactivation was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients younger than 87 years old, but not in nonagenarians.
Effect of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation on Inflammatory Status and Mortality of Older COVID-19 Patients / Giacconi, Robertina; Cardelli, Maurizio; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Farnocchia, Elisabetta; Di Rosa, Mirko; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Casoli, Tiziana; Marchegiani, Francesca; Marcheselli, Fiorella; Recchioni, Rina; Stripoli, Pierpaolo; Galeazzi, Roberta; Cherubini, Antonio; Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Sarzani, Riccardo; Di Pentima, Chiara; Giordano, Piero; Antonicelli, Roberto; Provinciali, Mauro; Lattanzio, Fabrizia. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - ELETTRONICO. - 24:7(2023), p. 6832. [10.3390/ijms24076832]