Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP) are true hormones produced and released by cardiomyocytes, exerting several systemic effects. Together with C-type NP (CNP), mainly expressed by endothelial cells, they also exert several paracrine and autocrine activities on the heart itself, contributing to cardiovascular (CV) health. In addition to their natriuretic, vasorelaxant, metabolic and antiproliferative systemic properties, NPs prevent cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, counteracting the development and progression of heart failure (HF). Moreover, recent studies revealed that a protein structurally similar to NPs mainly produced by skeletal muscles and osteoblasts called musclin/osteocrin is able to interact with the NPs clearance receptor, attenuating cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis and promoting heart protection during pathological overload. This narrative review is focused on the direct activities of this molecule family on the heart, reporting both experimental and human studies that are clinically relevant for physicians.
Role of Cardiac Natriuretic Peptides in Heart Structure and Function / Sarzani, Riccardo; Allevi, Massimiliano; Di Pentima, Chiara; Schiavi, Paola; Spannella, Francesco; Giulietti, Federico. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:22(2022), p. 14415. [10.3390/ijms232214415]