Clinical presentation of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) may range from acute chest pain to dyspnea: the prognostic role of clinical onset is still controversial. Aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic relevance of dyspnea at presentation in patients with TTS. We analyzed 1,071 TTS patients (median age 72 years, 90% female) enrolled in the international multicenter GEIST registry. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of dyspnea at hospital admission, as clinically assessed by the accepting physician. The primary endpoint was occurrence of in-hospital complications defined as a composite of pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock and death. Overall, 316 (30%) patients presented with dyspnea at hospital admission. Diabetes, lower left ventricular ejection fraction and presence of pulmonary disease or atrial fibrillation were independently associated with dyspnea. In-hospital pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock and death (17% vs. 3%, p<0.001; 12% vs. 7%, p=0.009; 5% vs. 2%, p=0.004 respectively) and long-term overall mortality (22% vs. 11%, p<0.001) occurred more frequently in patients with dyspnea than in those without. At multivariable analysis, dyspnea at presentation remained independently associated to both the composite primary endpoint [odds ratio 2.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95-4.59, p<0.001] and all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 2.03 (95% CI 1.37-2.99), p<0.001]. Dyspnea at presentation is common in TTS and is independently associated with in-hospital complications and impaired long-term prognosis. Thorough symptom assessment including dyspnea therefore represents a valuable tool to potentially optimize risk-stratification models for TTS patients.
Incidence, determinants and prognostic relevance of dyspnea at admission in patients with Takotsubo syndrome: results from the international multicenter GEIST registry / Arcari, Luca; Musumeci, Maria Beatrice; Stiermaier, Thomas; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Möller, Christian; Guerra, Federico; Novo, Giuseppina; Mariano, Enrica; Limite, Luca Rosario; Cacciotti, Luca; Semeraro, Raffaella; Volpe, Massimo; Romeo, Francesco; Caldarola, Pasquale; Thiele, Holger; Akin, Ibrahim; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Eitel, Ingo; Santoro, Francesco. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 10:1(2020), p. 13603. [10.1038/s41598-020-70445-9]