Background: Compelling evidence from preclinical and clinical studies supports the therapeutic role of cannabidiol (CBD) in several medical disorders. We reviewed the scientific evidence on CBD-related toxicity and adverse events (AEs) in 2019, at the beginning of the spike in clinical studies involving CBD. However, CBD safety remained uncertain. Objective: With the benefit of hindsight, we aimed to provide an update on CBD-related toxicity and AEs in humans. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase were accessed in October 2022 to identify clinical studies mentioning CBD-related toxicity/AEs from February 2019 to September 2022. Study design, population characteristics, CBD doses, treatment duration, co-medications, and AEs were compiled. Results: A total of 51 reports were included. Most studies investigated CBD efficacy and safety in neurological conditions, such as treatment-resistant epilepsies, although a growing number of studies are focusing on specific psychopathological conditions, such as substance use disorders, chronic psychosis, and anxiety. Most studies report mild or moderate severity of AEs. The most common AEs are diarrhea, somnolence, sedation, and upper respiratory disturbances. Few serious AEs have been reported, especially when CBD is co-administered with other classes of drugs, such as clobazam and valproate. Conclusions: Clinical data suggest that CBD is well tolerated and associated with few serious AEs at therapeutic doses both in children and adults. However, interactions with other medications should be monitored.
Update on Cannabidiol Clinical Toxicity and Adverse Effects: a Systematic Review / Madeo, Graziella; Kapoor, Ashita; Giorgetti, Raffaele; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Carlier, Jeremy. - In: CURRENT NEUROPHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 1570-159X. - 21:(2023). [10.2174/1570159X21666230322143401]