Objective: To reach global expert consensus on the definition of TOLS in minimally invasive and open liver resection among renowned international expert liver surgeons using a modified Delphi method. Summary background data: Textbook outcome is a novel composite measure combining the most desirable postoperative outcomes into one single measure and representing the ideal postoperative course. Despite a recently developed international definition of Textbook Outcome in Liver Surgery (TOLS), a standardized and expert consensus-based definition is lacking. Methods: This international, consensus-based, qualitative study used a Delphi process to achieve consensus on the definition of TOLS. The survey comprised 6 surgical domains with a total of 26 questions on individual surgical outcome variables. The process included 4 rounds of online questionnaires. Consensus was achieved when a threshold of at least 80% agreement was reached. Results from the Delphi rounds were used to establish an international definition of TOLS. Results: In total, 44 expert liver surgeons from 22 countries and all three major international hepato-pancreato-biliary associations completed round 1. Forty-two (96%), 41 (98%) and 41 (98%) of the experts participated in round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The TOLS definition derived from the consensus process included the absence of intraoperative grade ≥2 incidents, postoperative bile leakage grade B/C, postoperative liver failure grade B/C, 90-day major postoperative complications, 90-day readmission due to surgery-related major complications, 90-day/in-hospital mortality and the presence of R0 resection margin. Conclusions: This is the first study providing an international expert consensus-based definition of TOLS for minimally invasive and open liver resections by use of a formal Delphi consensus approach. TOLS may be useful in assessing patient-level hospital performance and carrying out international comparisons between centers with different clinical practices to further improve patient outcomes.
An International Expert Delphi Consensus on Defining Textbook Outcome in Liver Surgery (TOLS) / Görgec, Burak; Cacciaguerra, Andrea Benedetti; Pawlik, Timothy M; Aldrighetti, Luca A; Alseidi, Adnan A; Cillo, Umberto; Kokudo, Norihiro; Geller, David A; Wakabayashi, Go; Asbun, Horacio J; Besselink, Marc G; Cherqui, Daniel; Cheung, Tan To; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Conrad, Claudius; D'Hondt, Mathieu; Dagher, Ibrahim; Dervenis, Christos; Devar, John; Dixon, Elijah; Edwin, Bjørn; Efanov, Mikhail; Ettore, Giuseppe M; Ferrero, Alessandro; Fondevilla, Constantino; Fuks, David; Giuliante, Felice; Han, Ho-Seong; Honda, Goro; Imventarza, Oscar; Kooby, David A; Lodge, Peter; Lopez-Ben, Santiago; Machado, Marcel A; Marques, Hugo P; O'Rourke, Nick; Pekolj, Juan; Pinna, Antonio D; Portolani, Nazario; Primrose, John; Rotellar, Fernando; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Schadde, Erik; Siriwardena, Ajith K; Smadi, Sameer; Soubrane, Olivier; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Teh, Catherine S C; Torzilli, Guido; Van Gulik, Thomas M; Vivarelli, Marco; Wigmore, Stephen J; Abu Hilal, Mohammad. - In: ANNALS OF SURGERY. - ISSN 0003-4932. - Publish Ahead of Print:(2022). [10.1097/SLA.0000000000005668]