Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine anti-Mullerian hormane (AMH) levels in menopausal women, and (2) to confirm the source of AMH in cycling women and its disappearance after the removal of the source.Methods: An observational and prospective study was conducted.Results: A total of 47 women were recruited for the study. The study population consisted of the following group of patients: (A) women of late reproductive age (n = 24; mean age +/- SD, 44 +/- 2.8 years); (B) menopausal women (n = 14: mean age, 56 +/- 4 years); and (C) regularly cycling women undergoing surgical menopause (n = 9; mean age, 43 +/- 4 years). Blood samples were obtained from all patients. In patients undergoing surgery, blood samples were obtained before and after surgery. AMH was undetectable in 13 of 14 postmenopausal women, whereas it was undetectable in only two of 24 women of late reproductive age. A significant negative correlation has been found between AMH and age or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in women of late reproductive age. In women who were candidates for oophorectomy, samples were obtained 3-5 days after surgery. AMH was undetectable after the surgery in all women.Conclusions: We found that AMH levels decreased in women in the late reproductive period and that menopause and ovariectomy in regularly cycling women are associated to undetectable AMH in serum. These observations confirm that the ovary could be the only source of AMH in women and that it is a novel marker for ovarian aging.
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