Background: So far, male genital tract color-Doppler ultrasound (MGT-CDUS) was not standardized. Recently, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) published the results of a multicenter study assessing the CDUS characteristics of healthy-fertile men (HFM) to obtain normative parameters. Objectives: To report the EAA US study (i) standard operating procedures (SOPs) for assessing MGT-CDUS, (ii) main MGT-CDUS normative parameters, and (iii) compare the EAA and previously published "normal" CDUS values. Methods: A cohort of 248 HFM (35.3 ± 5.9 years) was studied, evaluating MGT-CDUS before and after ejaculation following SOPs. Results: SOPs for MGT-CDUS assessment are summarized here. All subjects underwent scrotal CDUS and 188 men underwent transrectal ultrasound before and after ejaculation. The main CDUS reference ranges and characteristics of the HFM-MGT are reported here. The mean testicular volume was ∼17 mL. The lower limit for right and left testis was 12 and 11 mL, defining testicular hypotrophy. The upper limit for epididymal head, body, tail, and vas deferens was 11.5, 5, 6, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Testicular and epididymal arterial reference ranges are reported. The EAA varicocoele classification is reported. CDUS-varicocoele was detected in ∼37% of men. Prostate mean volume was ∼25 mL, while lower and upper limits were 15 and 35 mL, defining hypotrophy and enlargement, respectively. Prostate arterial reference ranges are reported. Prostate calcifications and inhomogeneity were frequent; midline prostatic cysts were rare and small. Ejaculatory duct abnormalities were absent. The upper limit for periprostatic venous plexus was 4.5 mm. Lower and upper limits of seminal vesicles (SV) anterior-posterior diameter were 6 and 16 mm, defining hypotrophy or dilation, respectively. Seminal vesicle volume and ejection fraction reference ranges are reported. SV-US abnormalities were rare. Deferential ampullas upper limit was 6 mm. A discussion on the EAA and previously published "normal" CDUS values is reported here. Conclusions: The EAA findings will help in reproductive and general male health management.

The European Academy of Andrology (EAA) ultrasound study on healthy, fertile men: An overview on male genital tract ultrasound reference ranges

Balercia, Giancarlo;Salvio, Gianmaria;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: So far, male genital tract color-Doppler ultrasound (MGT-CDUS) was not standardized. Recently, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) published the results of a multicenter study assessing the CDUS characteristics of healthy-fertile men (HFM) to obtain normative parameters. Objectives: To report the EAA US study (i) standard operating procedures (SOPs) for assessing MGT-CDUS, (ii) main MGT-CDUS normative parameters, and (iii) compare the EAA and previously published "normal" CDUS values. Methods: A cohort of 248 HFM (35.3 ± 5.9 years) was studied, evaluating MGT-CDUS before and after ejaculation following SOPs. Results: SOPs for MGT-CDUS assessment are summarized here. All subjects underwent scrotal CDUS and 188 men underwent transrectal ultrasound before and after ejaculation. The main CDUS reference ranges and characteristics of the HFM-MGT are reported here. The mean testicular volume was ∼17 mL. The lower limit for right and left testis was 12 and 11 mL, defining testicular hypotrophy. The upper limit for epididymal head, body, tail, and vas deferens was 11.5, 5, 6, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Testicular and epididymal arterial reference ranges are reported. The EAA varicocoele classification is reported. CDUS-varicocoele was detected in ∼37% of men. Prostate mean volume was ∼25 mL, while lower and upper limits were 15 and 35 mL, defining hypotrophy and enlargement, respectively. Prostate arterial reference ranges are reported. Prostate calcifications and inhomogeneity were frequent; midline prostatic cysts were rare and small. Ejaculatory duct abnormalities were absent. The upper limit for periprostatic venous plexus was 4.5 mm. Lower and upper limits of seminal vesicles (SV) anterior-posterior diameter were 6 and 16 mm, defining hypotrophy or dilation, respectively. Seminal vesicle volume and ejection fraction reference ranges are reported. SV-US abnormalities were rare. Deferential ampullas upper limit was 6 mm. A discussion on the EAA and previously published "normal" CDUS values is reported here. Conclusions: The EAA findings will help in reproductive and general male health management.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/309995
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