Halide-free, water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSEs) composed of potassium acetate (KAc) and zinc acetate (ZnAc2) are investigated as electrolytes in zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSs). Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that water molecules are mostly non-interacting with each other in the highly concentrated WiSEs, while "bulk-like water" regions are present in the dilute electrolyte. Among the various concentrated electrolytes investigated, the 30 m KAc and 1 m ZnAc2 electrolyte (30K1Zn) grants the best performance in terms of reversibility and stability of Zn plating/stripping while the less concentrated electrolyte cannot suppress corrosion of Zn and hydrogen evolution. The ZHSs utilizing 30K1Zn, in combination with a commercial activated carbon (AC) positive electrode and Zn as the negative electrode, deliver a capacity of 65 mAh g(-1) (based on the AC weight) at a current density of 5 A g(-1). They also offer an excellent capacity retention over 10 000 cycles and an impressive coulombic efficiency (approximate to 100%).
Zinc-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors Employing Acetate-Based Water-in-Salt Electrolytes / Han, Jin; Mariani, Alessandro; Zarrabeitia, Maider; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen; Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano. - In: SMALL. - ISSN 1613-6810. - 18:31(2022), p. 2201563. [10.1002/smll.202201563]