The oxazolidinones (linezolid and tedizolid) are last-resort antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of severe infections in humans caused by MDR Gram-positive bacteria. They bind to the peptidyl transferase centre of the bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis. Even if the majority of Gram-positive bacteria remain susceptible to oxazolidinones, resistant isolates have been reported worldwide. Apart from mutations, affecting mostly the 23S rDNA genes and selected ribosomal proteins, acquisition of resistance genes (cfr and cfr-like, optrA and poxtA), often associated with mobile genetic elements [such as non-conjugative and conjugative plasmids, transposons, integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and translocatable units], plays a critical role in oxazolidinone resistance. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms and provide an overview on the diversity of the mobile genetic elements carrying oxazolidinone resistance genes in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Oxazolidinones: mechanisms of resistance and mobile genetic elements involved / Brenciani, Andrea; Morroni, Gianluca; Schwarz, Stefan; Giovanetti, Eleonora. - In: JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY. - ISSN 0305-7453. - (2022). [10.1093/jac/dkac263]