Due to the semi-enclosed nature of the Mediterranean Sea, natural disasters and anthropogenic activities impose stronger pressures on its coastal ecosystems than in any other sea of the world. With the aim of responding adequately to science priorities and societal challenges, littoral waters must be effectively monitored with high-frequency radar (HFR) systems. This land-based remote sensing technology can provide, in near-real time, fine-resolution maps of the surface circulation over broad coastal areas, along with reliable directional wave and wind information. The main goal of this work is to showcase the current status of the Mediterranean HFR network and the future roadmap for orchestrated actions. Ongoing collaborative efforts and recent progress of this regional alliance are not only described but also connected with other European initiatives and global frameworks, highlighting the advantages of this cost-effective instrument for the multi-parameter monitoring of the sea state. Coordinated endeavors between HFR operators from different multi-disciplinary institutions are mandatory to reach a mature stage at both national and regional levels, striving to do the following: (i) harmonize deployment and maintenance practices; (ii) standardize data, metadata, and quality control procedures; (iii) centralize data management, visualization, and access platforms; and (iv) develop practical applications of societal benefit that can be used for strategic planning and informed decision-making in the Mediterranean marine environment. Such fit-for-purpose applications can serve for search and rescue operations, safe vessel navigation, tracking of marine pollutants, the monitoring of extreme events, the investigation of transport processes, and the connectivity between offshore waters and coastal ecosystems. Finally, future prospects within the Mediterranean framework are discussed along with a wealth of socioeconomic, technical, and scientific challenges to be faced during the implementation of this integrated HFR regional network.
Coastal high-frequency radars in the Mediterranean - Part 1: Status of operations and a framework for future development / Lorente, P; Aguiar, E; Bendoni, M; Berta, M; Brandini, C; Caceres-Euse, A; Capodici, F; Cianelli, D; Ciraolo, G; Corgnati, L; Dadic, V; Doronzo, B; Drago, A; Dumas, D; Falco, P; Fattorini, M; Gauci, A; Gomez, R; Griffa, A; Guerin, Ca; Hernandez-Carrasco, I; Hernandez-Lasheras, J; Licer, M; Magaldi, Mg; Mantovani, C; Mihanovic, H; Molcard, A; Mourre, B; Orfila, A; Revelard, A; Reyes, E; Sanchez, J; Saviano, S; Sciascia, R; Taddei, S; Tintore, J; Toledo, Y; Ursella, L; Uttieri, M; Vilibic, I; Zambianchi, E; Cardin, V. - In: OCEAN SCIENCE. - ISSN 1812-0784. - ELETTRONICO. - 18:3(2022), pp. 761-795. [10.5194/os-18-761-2022]