In high income setting, the massive implementation of screening programs has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, dramatically. However, cervical cancer still remains a major health concern, being one of the most common cause of death for cancer among women. The adoption of primary prevention through vaccination against HPV aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-related lesions and cervical cancer. Accumulating data highlighted the cost-effectiveness of introducing HPV vaccination for adolescent and young adults. In the present review, we critically evaluated the role of vaccination against HPV, focusing much more on the role of vaccination in specific cluster of subjects (eg, post-treatment and older adults). Additionally, we evaluated the available evidence on the role of vaccination in HIV-positive subjects and in women receiving solid organs transplantation. We observed that although vaccination might be considered effective in those cluster of subjects; further evidence is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccination in these settings.
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