Cervical cancer is relatively rare in high-income countries, where organized screening programs are in place, as well as opportunistic ones. As the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates increase, the prevalence of cervical precancers and cancers is going to decrease rapidly very soon, even if, in the most optimistic scenario, it is unlikely that optimal vaccination coverage will be achieved. Then, the optimal screening paradigm for cervical cancer prevention in the postvaccination era is still debated. Screening guidelines are being developed with the aim of reducing the number of tests a woman needs during her lifetime, in order to receive the maximum benefit from screening, while decreasing potential harms that may result with the use of a screening strategy (overdiagnosis, overtreatment, anxiety, and costs). With this purpose in mind, new management guidelines for cervical cancer screening abnormalities are recommendations based on risks, not on results. This review aims to summarize the process that led to the introduction of the HPV DNA test in screening programs and the different screening strategies. Moreover, it aims to introduce the new risk-based guidelines for the future, where full HPV genotyping can resize the risk on the basis of specific high-risk genotypes. In the same way, the data regarding HPV vaccination could be introduced as soon as women vaccinated with the nonavalent vaccine reach the screening age, with the recommendation of a prolonged screening interval.
Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines in the Postvaccination Era: Review of the Literature / Liverani, C. A.; Di Giuseppe, J.; Giannella, L.; Delli Carpini, G.; Ciavattini, A.. - In: JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY. - ISSN 1687-8450. - 2020:(2020). [10.1155/2020/8887672]