The interventional treatment of aortic stenosis is currently based on transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVE) is the most worrisome complication after valve replacement, as it still carries high mortality and morbidity rate. Studies have not highlighted the differences in the occurrence of PVE in SAVR as opposed to TAVR, but the reported incidence rates are widely uneven. Literature portrays different microbiological profiles for SAVR and TAVR PVE: Staphylococcus, Ente-rococcus, and Streptococcus are the pathogens that are more frequently involved with differences regarding the timing from the date of the intervention. Imaging by means of transoesophageal echocardiography, and computed tomography (CT) Scan is essential in identifying vegetations, prosthesis dysfunction, dehiscence, periannular abscess, or aorto-ventricular discontinuity. In most cases, conservative medical treatment is not able to prevent fatal events and surgery represents the only viable option. The primary objectives of surgical treatment are radical debridement and the removal of infected tissues, the reconstruction of cardiac and aortic morphology, and the restoration of the aortic valve function. Different surgical options are discussed. Fast diagnosis, the adequacy of antibiotics treatment, and prompt interventions are essential in preventing the negative consequences of infective endocarditis (IE).

Endocarditis in patients with aortic valve prosthesis: Comparison between surgical and transcatheter prosthesis

Malvindi P. G.;
2021

Abstract

The interventional treatment of aortic stenosis is currently based on transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVE) is the most worrisome complication after valve replacement, as it still carries high mortality and morbidity rate. Studies have not highlighted the differences in the occurrence of PVE in SAVR as opposed to TAVR, but the reported incidence rates are widely uneven. Literature portrays different microbiological profiles for SAVR and TAVR PVE: Staphylococcus, Ente-rococcus, and Streptococcus are the pathogens that are more frequently involved with differences regarding the timing from the date of the intervention. Imaging by means of transoesophageal echocardiography, and computed tomography (CT) Scan is essential in identifying vegetations, prosthesis dysfunction, dehiscence, periannular abscess, or aorto-ventricular discontinuity. In most cases, conservative medical treatment is not able to prevent fatal events and surgery represents the only viable option. The primary objectives of surgical treatment are radical debridement and the removal of infected tissues, the reconstruction of cardiac and aortic morphology, and the restoration of the aortic valve function. Different surgical options are discussed. Fast diagnosis, the adequacy of antibiotics treatment, and prompt interventions are essential in preventing the negative consequences of infective endocarditis (IE).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11566/301690
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