Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is burdened by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed our experience in the management of patients with acute prosthetic aortic valve infection and studied the implications and outcomes associated with surgical treatment and medical therapy. Methods: Data of 118 consecutive patients admitted during the period 2008–2018 with definite acute prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis, and presenting a surgical indication, were retrieved from the hospital database. Univariate and multivariate analysis were undertaken to study the association of preoperative characteristics with hospital mortality and the probability of undergoing a reoperation. Survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: In the overall population, prosthesis dehiscence was independently associated with the possibility of undergoing surgical reoperation, while presentation with embolic stroke was associated with medical treatment. Hospital mortality was 24%, medical treatment was found to be independently associated with early death. One hundred (85%) patients underwent redo procedures; aortic valve replacement was performed in 53 and full root replacement in 47. Postoperative hospital mortality was 17%. Survival at 1-, 5-, and 8-years was 78%, 74%, and 66%, respectively. Freedom from reoperation and recurrent endocarditis was 95% at 8-year follow-up. Hospital mortality in patients who did not receive a redo operation was 61% with a survival rate of 17% at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: Surgical mortality after reoperation for prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis is still high but mid-term outcomes are satisfactory. Failure to undertake surgery when indicated is an independent risk factor for early death.
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