In the framework of minimum liquid discharge (MLD) or zero liquid discharge (ZLD), sustainable brine management can be achieved via appropriate hybrid treatment technologies that provide water reuse, resource recovery, energy recovery and even freshwater production. This paper reviews the state of the art brine treatment technologies targeting MLD/ZLD and resource recovery and highlights their advantages and limitations. The right combination of treatment processes can add a high value to the brine management and shift the focus from removal to recovery and reuse point and help to adopt a more circular economy approach. ZLD technologies targets 100% water recovery using both membrane- and thermal-based technologies, while they are often hindered by high cost and intensive energy requirement. Meanwhile, the recovery of salts and other resources can partially compensate the operation cost of ZLD processes. MLD is a promising option that achieves up to 95% water recovery by using mainly membrane-based technologies. At this point, feasibility assessment is important to assess the environmental and economic sound of technologies. In the second part, we provide a techno-economic assessment of the most common technologies to provide possible benefits on a desalination plant. In the latter sections, innovative brine treatment schemes are discussed aiming MLD/ZLD, while resource recovery from brine and possible valorization routes of the recovered materials are highlighted to help to reduce the overall costs of the plants and to reach the targets of circular economy.

Brine treatment technologies towards minimum/zero liquid discharge and resource recovery: State of the art and techno-economic assessment / Cipolletta, G.; Lancioni, N.; Akyol, C.; Eusebi, A. L.; Fatone, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. - ISSN 1095-8630. - 300:(2021), p. 113681. [10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113681]

Brine treatment technologies towards minimum/zero liquid discharge and resource recovery: State of the art and techno-economic assessment

Cipolletta G.;Lancioni N.;Akyol C.
;
Eusebi A. L.;Fatone F.
2021-01-01

Abstract

In the framework of minimum liquid discharge (MLD) or zero liquid discharge (ZLD), sustainable brine management can be achieved via appropriate hybrid treatment technologies that provide water reuse, resource recovery, energy recovery and even freshwater production. This paper reviews the state of the art brine treatment technologies targeting MLD/ZLD and resource recovery and highlights their advantages and limitations. The right combination of treatment processes can add a high value to the brine management and shift the focus from removal to recovery and reuse point and help to adopt a more circular economy approach. ZLD technologies targets 100% water recovery using both membrane- and thermal-based technologies, while they are often hindered by high cost and intensive energy requirement. Meanwhile, the recovery of salts and other resources can partially compensate the operation cost of ZLD processes. MLD is a promising option that achieves up to 95% water recovery by using mainly membrane-based technologies. At this point, feasibility assessment is important to assess the environmental and economic sound of technologies. In the second part, we provide a techno-economic assessment of the most common technologies to provide possible benefits on a desalination plant. In the latter sections, innovative brine treatment schemes are discussed aiming MLD/ZLD, while resource recovery from brine and possible valorization routes of the recovered materials are highlighted to help to reduce the overall costs of the plants and to reach the targets of circular economy.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/301626
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