: Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer several beneficial effects to the host, including enhancement of bone mineralization. However, probiotic action on bone regeneration is not well studied and therefore we analysed various effects of probiotic treatment on the caudal fin regeneration of zebrafish. Morphological analysis revealed an increased regenerated area with shorter and thicker lepidotrichia segments after probiotic treatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy imaging analysis highlighted the distribution of phosphate groups in the regenerated fins and probiotic group showed higher amounts of well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. At the midpoint (5 days post amputation) of regeneration, probiotics were able to modulate various stages of osteoblast differentiation as confirmed by the upregulation of some key marker genes such as runx2b, sp7, col10a1a, spp1 and bglap, besides suppressing osteoclast activity as evidenced from the downregulation of ctsk. Probiotics also caused an enhanced cell cycle by regulating the expression of genes involved in Retinoic acid (rarga, cyp26b1) and Wnt/β-catenin (ctnnb1, ccnd1, axin2, sost) signaling pathways, and also modulated phosphate homeostasis by increasing the entpd5a levels. These findings provide new outlooks for the use of probiotics as a prophylactic treatment in accelerating bone regeneration and improving skeletal health in both aquaculture and biomedical fields.
Zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate the role of probiotics in bone regeneration / Sojan, Jerry Maria; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Orlando, Patrick; Tiano, Luca; Maradonna, Francesca; Carnevali, Oliana. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 12:1(2022), p. 8057. [10.1038/s41598-022-12138-z]