Located at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) undergoes a complex conformational rearrangement after depletion of ER luminal Ca2+. Then, STIM1 translocates into discrete ER‐plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it directly interacts with and activates plasma membrane Orai1 channels to refill ER with Ca2+. Furthermore, Ca2+ entry due to Orai1/STIM1 interaction may induce canonical transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) translocation to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by STIM1. All these events give rise to store‐operated calcium entry (SOCE). Besides the main pathway underlying SOCE, which mainly involves Orai1 and TRPC1 activation, STIM1 modulates many other plasma membrane proteins in order to potentiate the influxof Ca2+. Furthermore, it is now clear that STIM1 may inhibit Ca2+ currents mediated by L‐type Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, STIM1 also interacts with some intracellular channels and transporters, including nuclear and lysosomal ionic proteins, thus orchestrating organellar Ca2+ homeostasis. STIM1 and its partners/effectors are significantly modulated in diverse acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. This highlights the importance of further disclosing their cellular functions as they might represent promising molecular targets for neuroprotection.
Plasma membrane and organellar targets of stim1 for intracellular calcium handling in health and neurodegenerative diseases / Tedeschi, V.; La Russa, D.; Franco, C.; Vinciguerra, A.; Amantea, D.; Secondo, A.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - 10:10(2021), p. 2518. [10.3390/cells10102518]