Mangiferin is a potential candidate for use in nutraceutical and functional food applications due to its numerous bioactivities. However, the low bioavailability of mangiferin is a major limitation for establishing efficacy for use. This review describes current information on known food sources and factors that influence mangiferin contents, absorption, and metabolism features, and recent progress that has come from research efforts to increase the bioavailability of mangiferin. We also list patents that targeted to enhance mangiferin bioavailability. Mangifera indica L. is the major dietary source for mangiferin, a xanthone that varies widely in different parts of the plant and is influenced by many factors that involve plant propagation and post-harvest processing. Mangiferin absorption occurs mostly in the small intestine by passive diffusion with varying absorption capacities in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent research has led to the development of novel technologies to encapsulate mangiferin in nano/microparticle carrier systems as well as generate mangiferin derivatives to improve solubility and bioavailability. Preclinical studies reported that mangiferin < 2000 mg/kg is generally nontoxic. The safety and the increase in bioavailability are key limiting factors for developing successful applications for mangiferin as a nutritional dietary supplement or nutraceutical.
Mangiferin: a review of dietary sources, absorption, metabolism, bioavailability, and safety / Mei, S.; Perumal, M.; Battino, M.; Kitts, D. D.; Xiao, J.; Ma, H.; Chen, X.. - In: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION. - ISSN 1040-8398. - ELETTRONICO. - (2021), pp. 1-19-19. [10.1080/10408398.2021.1983767]