Oxidative stress is a critical condition derived from the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and the sophisticated network of antioxidant mechanisms. Several pollutants and environmental factors can affect this system through connected mechanisms, indirect relationships, and cascade effects from pre-transcriptional to catalytic level, by either enhancing intracellular ROS formation or impairing antioxidant defenses. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the pro-oxidant challenges from emerging environmental stressors threatening marine organisms, such as pharmaceuticals, microplastics and climate-related ocean changes. Emphasis will be placed on oxidative pathways, including signaling proteins and transcription factors involved in regulation of antioxidant responsiveness. Mechanistic insights and lack of knowledge will be pointed out by presenting single and combined effects of multiple stressors, unravelling questions to be addressed by future research in marine ecotoxicology.
Emerging environmental stressors and oxidative pathways in marine organisms: Current knowledge on regulation mechanisms and functional effects / Benedetti, M.; Giuliani, M. E.; Mezzelani, M.; Nardi, A.; Pittura, L.; Gorbi, S.; Regoli, F.. - In: BIOCELL. - ISSN 0327-9545. - 46:1(2022), pp. 37-49. [10.32604/biocell.2022.017507]