Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The conventional therapies seem to offer minimal long-term cardioprotection against diabetes-related complications in patients living with T2D. There is a growing interest in understanding the therapeutic effects of food-derived bioactive compounds in protecting or managing these metabolic diseases. This includes uncovering the therapeutic potential of fat-soluble micronutrients such as vitamin K, which are abundantly found in green leafy vegetables. We searched the major electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Google Scholar and Science direct. The search retrieved randomized clinical trials and preclinical studies, reporting on the impact of vitamin K on CVD-related complications in T2D. The current review updates clinical evidence on the therapeutic benefits of vitamin K by attenuating CVD-risk factors such as blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with T2D. Importantly, the summarized preclinical evidence provides a unique perspective into the pathophysiological mechanisms that could be targeted by vitamin K in the primary prevention of T2D-related complications. Lastly, this review further explores the controversies related to the cardioprotective effects of vitamin K, and also provides the basic information such as the source and bioavailability profile of this micronutrient is covered to highlight its therapeutic potential.
Vitamin K: A vital micronutrient with the cardioprotective potential against diabetes-associated complications / Mokgalaboni, K.; Nkambule, B. B.; Ntamo, Y.; Ziqubu, K.; Nyambuya, T. M.; Mazibuko-Mbeje, S. E.; Gabuza, K. B.; Chellan, N.; Cirilli, I.; Tiano, L.; Dludla, P. V.. - In: LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 0024-3205. - 286:(2021), p. 120068. [10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120068]